He then refused to take part in the elections, claiming that the communist north would engage in election fraud and that as a result they would win because they had more people.
After the election deadline passed, the military commanders in the North began preparing an invasion of the South.
At the same time, the US sought to increase the legitimacy of the South Vietnamese government by instituting the Many Flags program, hoping to counter the communist propaganda that South Vietnam was merely a US puppet state and to involve as many nations as possible.
Thus Australia, as an ally of the United States with obligations under the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) and ANZUS Pacts, and in the hope of shoring up its alliance with the US, became involved in the Vietnam War.
Following the end of the Second World War the French had sought to reassert control over French Indochina, which had been occupied by Japan.
In 1950, as the communist-backed Việt Minh, led by Ho Chi Minh, began to gain the ascendency in the First Indochina War, the Vietnamese nation had two parallel administrations; the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (recognised by the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China) and the State of Vietnam (So V), an associated state in the French Union (recognised by the non-communist world).Given the experience that Australian forces had gained in Malaya it was felt that initially Australia could contribute to the situation by providing advisors who were experts in the tactics of jungle warfare.In this regard the Australian government's initial response was to send 30 military advisers, dispatched as the Australian Army Training Team Vietnam (AATTV), also known as "the Team".The Australian military assistance was to be in jungle warfare training, and the Team comprised highly qualified and experienced officers and NCOs, led by Colonel Ted Serong, many with previous experience from the Malayan Emergency.Relationships between the AATTV and US advisors were generally very cordial, but there were sometimes significant differences of opinion on the training and tactics that should be employed.The effects of the War outside present-day Vietnam are ongoing.Substantial Vietnamese communities in countries that participated in the conflict are contributing to renewed interpretations of it.This collection of new essays explores changes in perceptions of the war and the Vietnamese diaspora, examining history, politics, biography and literature, with Vietnamese, American, Australian and French scholars providing new insights.Twelve essays cover South Vietnamese leadership and policies, women and civilians, veterans overseas, smaller allies in the war (Australia), accounts by U.Approximately 60,000 Australians served in the war; 521 were killed and more than 3,000 were wounded.Australia's involvement in the Vietnam War was driven largely by the rise of communism in Southeast Asia after the Second World War, and the fear of its spread which developed in Australia during the 1950s and early 1960s.