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Fossilization, or the cessation of learning, is recognized as a widespread phenomenon in second language acquisition.Although we have descriptions of fossilized interlanguages (Agnello, 1977; Bean, 1990; Bruzzese, 1977; Sotillo, 1987), researchers have not identified the linguistic behavior of those whose second language acquisition has ceased.
Vygotskian theory suggests that differences might be found between these two groups in performance on tasks which challenge the linguistic abilities of the speakers.Summarizing these findings, this study proposed a usage-based acquisitional model of L2 Chinese connectives, providing theoretical contributions to the usage-based theory and pedagogical implications for Chinese connectives.This study investigates the learning of Chinese connectives by second language learners under the theoretical framework of usage-based theory.Furthermore, the study investigates the learners’ knowledge about the distribution of Chinese connectives across different proficiency levels.Specifically, this study aims to address four research questions: (1) what is the relationship between L2 learners’ proficiency level and language background and the acquisition of Chinese connectives?However, comparison of performances on an imitation/grammaticality judgment task and a structured interview showed that the nonfossilized speakers were more consistent in use or non-use of targetlike forms across tasks than were the fossilized speakers.These findings suggest that the interlanguage of fossilized speakers is more variable than that of nonfossilized speakers, and that the fossilized speakers are less sensitive to the forms provided in the input, as well as less able to maintain new, targetlike forms in their own speech.; (2) do L2 learners overuse or underuse Chinese connectives in constructing responses when the other in a pair is given and what errors do L2 learners make when using Chinese connectives?; (3) how can 12 target pairs of Chinese connectives be categorized into (hierarchical) groups based on L2 Chinese learners’ performance?Four hypotheses, concerning (1) the use of imitation, (2) the ability to learn short-term, (3) the use of object- and other-regulation, and (4) the use of private speech were tested with two groups of English as a second language speakers, one fossilized and one nonfossilized. It was found that, compared to the nonfossilized group, the fossilized speakers had more difficulty producing the structures required in a short term learning task and as they endeavored to do so, they needed more turns and produced more regressions (nontargetlike forms that had been previously used targetlike).The eighteen subjects were all matriculated undergraduates at an American university and had lived in the U. Although counts of instances of use of object- and other-regulation as well as private speech showed no differences in a picture narrative task, imitation of the interlocutor's speech was significantly less for the fossilized subjects than for the nonfossilized subjects.