Self-nominations are automatically disqualified and only living persons are eligible for the Nobel Prize.
He signed it at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on November 27, 1895.
Nobel's work had directly involved the creation of explosives, and he became increasingly uneasy with the military usage of his inventions.
It is said that his will was motivated in part by his reading of a premature obituary of himself, published in error by a French newspaper on the occasion of the death of Nobel's brother Ludvig, which condemned Alfred as a "merchant of death." After his death, Alfred left 94 percent of his worth to the establishment of five prizes: The whole of my remaining realizable estate shall be dealt with in the following way: The capital shall be invested by my executors in safe securities and shall constitute a fund, the interest on which shall be annually distributed in the form of prizes to those who, during the preceding year, shall have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind.
The said interest shall be divided into five equal parts, which shall be apportioned as follows: one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery or invention within the field of physics; one part to the person who shall have made the most important chemical discovery or improvement; one part to the person who shall have made the most important discovery within the domain of physiology or medicine; one part to the person who shall have produced in the field of literature the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency; and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity among nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.
The prizes for physics and chemistry shall be awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; that for physiological or medical works by the Caroline Institute in Stockholm; that for literature by the Academy in Stockholm; and that for champions of peace by a committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Storting.
It is my express wish that in awarding the prizes no consideration whatever shall be given to the nationality of the candidates, so that the most worthy shall receive the prize, whether he be a Scandinavian or not.Posthumous nominations for the Prize have been disallowed since 1974.This has sometimes sparked criticism that people deserving of a Nobel Prize did not receive the award because they died before being nominated.The committees and institutions that serve as selection boards for the prizes typically announce the names of the laureates in October.The prizes are awarded at formal ceremonies held annually on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death.These include 817 Laureates and 23 organizations (since some individuals and organizations have been honored more than once, a total of 813 different individuals and 20 unique organizations have received awards).A prize may be given to two works if they are both considered worthy of the prize.The Nobel Prizes are named after Alfred Nobel, a Swedish scientist. Between 19, the Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 543 times.There are years in which one or more prizes are not awarded, usually because no work was found to be of the required standard stipulated by Alfred Nobel.However, the prizes must be awarded at least once every five years.