Essays On Buddhist Meditation

Essays On Buddhist Meditation-35
The Roman Catholic rosary is a string of beads containing five sets with ten small beads.The Hindu japa mala has 108 beads (the figure 108 in itself having spiritual significance, as well as those used in Jainism and Buddhist prayer beads. The Buddhist literature has many stories of Enlightenment being attained through disciples being struck by their masters. Griffith Foulk professor of Religion at Sarah Lawrence College the encouragement stick was an integral part of the Zen practice: In the Rinzai monastery where I trained in the mid-1970s, according to an unspoken etiquette, monks who were sitting earnestly and well were shown respect by being hit vigorously and often; those known as laggards were ignored by the hall monitor or given little taps if they requested to be hit.It has three parts called the Ratnatraya "Three Jewels": right perception and faith, right knowledge and right conduct.

The Roman Catholic rosary is a string of beads containing five sets with ten small beads.The Hindu japa mala has 108 beads (the figure 108 in itself having spiritual significance, as well as those used in Jainism and Buddhist prayer beads. The Buddhist literature has many stories of Enlightenment being attained through disciples being struck by their masters. Griffith Foulk professor of Religion at Sarah Lawrence College the encouragement stick was an integral part of the Zen practice: In the Rinzai monastery where I trained in the mid-1970s, according to an unspoken etiquette, monks who were sitting earnestly and well were shown respect by being hit vigorously and often; those known as laggards were ignored by the hall monitor or given little taps if they requested to be hit.It has three parts called the Ratnatraya "Three Jewels": right perception and faith, right knowledge and right conduct.

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Other criteria deemed important [but not essential] involve a state of psychophysical relaxation, the use of a self-focus skill or anchor, the presence of a state of suspension of logical thought processes, a religious/spiritual/philosophical context, or a state of mental silence.

For instance, while monks meditate as part of their everyday lives, they also engage the codified rules and live together in monasteries in specific cultural settings that go along with their meditative practices.

In the West, meditation techniques have sometimes been thought of in two broad categories: focused (or concentrative) meditation and open monitoring (or mindfulness) meditation.

One style, Focused Attention (FA) meditation, entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object, breathing, image, or words.

There remains no definition of necessary and sufficient criteria for meditation that has achieved universal or widespread acceptance within the modern scientific community, as one study recently noted a "persistent lack of consensus in the literature" and a "seeming intractability of defining meditation".

In 1971, Claudio Naranjo noted that "The word 'meditation' has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough from one another so that we may find trouble in defining what meditation is." to achieve a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state. (2009) identified criteria for defining a practice as meditation "for use in a comprehensive systematic review of the therapeutic use of meditation," using "a 5-round Delphi study with a panel of 7 experts in meditation research" who were also trained in diverse but empirically highly studied (Eastern-derived or clinical) forms of meditation and a self-induced state/mode.although other postures such as sitting, supine (lying), and standing are also used.Meditation is also sometimes done while walking, known as kinhin, or while doing a simple task mindfully, known as samu.Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique – such as mindfulness, or focusing their mind on a particular object, thought or activity – to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state.Scholars have found meditation difficult to define, as practices vary both between traditions and within them.Nobody asked about the 'meaning' of the stick, nobody explained, and nobody ever complained about its use.In pre-modern and traditional Hinduism, Yoga and Dhyana are practised to realize union of one's eternal self or soul, one's ātman.One of the most influential texts of classical Hindu Yoga is Patañjali's Yoga sutras (c.400 CE), a text associated with Yoga and Samkhya, which outlines eight limbs leading to kaivalya ("aloneness").Depending on the tradition, the liberative event is named moksha, vimukti or kaivalya.The earliest clear references to meditation in Hindu literature are in the middle Upanishads and the Mahabharata (including the Bhagavad Gita).

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