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For each of the four explanations, followed typical structure of: (a) definition; (b) when might happen; (c) evidence supporting explanation; (d) limitations of this explanation as being “the whole story” (this is the “critical” part of a critical review). “Whilst normative social influence may explain the conformity that occurs in …, it is an unlikely explanation for memory conformity that may occur when people give individual statements following discussion in the absence of their co-witness. “The suggestion that memory conformity is a result of biased guessing is similar to the informational influence explanation because in both instances …However, the distinguishing feature between the two explanations is that …” …However, your literature review should grow and change as your research progresses, and should be revised at different stages in the course of your studies to include the idea that it is a review and forms an important part of your research argument.
“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.
Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations. “Informational influence, biased guessing, and modification of memory may help to explain why memory conformity occurs when participants are tested individually, as they are in the studies presented in this thesis. The research presented in this thesis compares these alternative explanations to determine which best explains memory conformity in individual recall following co-witness discussion. “One way to determine whether memory conformity occurs because of biased guessing is to …” “Experiments described in this thesis (Studies 5-7) include a warning for some participants about possible misinformation in an attempt to determine whether participants report misinformation because of informational influence or memory change.” 7.
However, unlike research papers, which establish new arguments and make original contributions, literature reviews organize and present existing research. A bibliography is a list of resources consulted when researching a particular topic.
As a student or academic, you might produce a literature review as a standalone paper or as a portion of a larger research project. Literature reviews do more than list the sources you’ve consulted: they summarize and critically evaluate those sources. Unlike some of the other well-known "reviews" (e.g.
“ on collaborative memory is that the memory of groups is compared with that of individuals. group performance should not be compared with individual performance but rather with ‘nominal groups’ comprised of pooled, non-redundant data from the same number of people tested individually.” 8. Most research involving the Experimentally Induced Information methodology seeks to identify the influence of misinformation presented by one witness to another, and therefore the assumption is made that discussion between witnesses is a detrimental process. “While the misinformation effect is a well-established phenomenon, ‘what remains in dispute is the nature of a satisfactory theoretical explanation’ (ref.). Therefore, in order to understand why memory conformity occurs, we must draw from both cognitive research on memory and social research on conformity.
In this section, relevant cognitive and social theories are discussed in order to (1) explain the occurrence of memory conformity and (2) describe factors that influence memory conformity.” 3.The overall goals of this chapter were firstly to establish the significance of the general field of study, then identify a place where a new contribution could be made.The bulk of the chapter was on critically evaluating the different methodologies used in this field so as to identify the appropriate approach for investigating the research question(s). “Approximately 77,000 individuals are arrested in the United States each year based primarily on eyewitness testimony (ref.). Given the pivotal role that eyewitness testimony plays in some trials, it is important to establish whether or not the jury’s faith in this testimony is warranted.” 2.A literature review summarizes and synthesizes the existing scholarly research on a particular topic.Literature reviews are a form of academic writing commonly used in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.Identifies which explanations are likely to be valid in explaining the results of experiments conducted for this thesis. “Whist it has been shown that in some circumstances many people tend to conform to the opinions of others, we also know that some people are able to resist conforming in some situations. This section of the literature review examines factors influencing whether or not a person is likely to conform that are (1) in the situation, and (2) within the individual.” 8.The literature review aims to compare and contrast the thinking, ideologies, concepts and thoughts in 'the field' of a particular subject area.It is important to keep the reader focused on the rationale and significance of your work, and on the key issues involved.It is therefore important to write with the correct focus and emphasis.“One study has shown that eyewitness errors are the most common cause of false convictions (ref.).Almost all innocent individuals exonerated by DNA evidence had been convicted primarily as a result of erroneous eyewitness evidence (ref.) Consequently, a great deal of research has focussed on the unreliability of eyewitness testimony (refs.).” , such a narrow focus may not fully explain how people remember (ref.). Reviews the chronological development of research in this area (an approach that is useful at times, but not always the best).