Multiculturalism In Toronto Essay

Multiculturalism In Toronto Essay-22
It briefly outlines the concept of multiculturalism, its fallacies and inadequacies, followed by an introduction to dub poetry.

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While the first objective seems to have been accommodated with the various official multiculturalism programs, the latter fell short of being realized due to the lack of political demand and pressure on key cultural, educational, and political institutions to fundamentally change their politics.4 Political, economic, and social equality was not achieved.Hence, this policy/ideology diminishes structural, economic, political, and social inequalities, cultural hegemony, discrimination against and othering of non-European immigrants, male violence and patriarchy within non-European immigrant groups to political non-issues.12 Her view of multiculturalism is diametrically opposed to the proposed objectives of this policy/ideology: “The problem of multiculturalism, then, is how much tradition can be accommodated by Canadian modernity without affecting in any real way the overall political and cultural hegemony of Europeans.”13 The ideological Englishness / Europeanness / ‘whiteness’ is the hegemonic Canadian identity and forms the point of departure for multiculturalism, othering non-’white’ individuals and cultural groups and reducing them to Philip’s ‘satellite status.’ Because the ethnicity of English and French Canada is not acknowledged, Bannerji says, "the whiteness in the ‘self’ of ‘Canada’s’ state and nationhood” is left unnamed.Hence, this “white center” is rendered transparent and invisible and its identity universal so that cultures perceived as being different are marked “visible” and “multiculture” and placed at the orbiting margin.14 These selective modes of ethnicization constitute multiculturalism as vehicle for racialization.15 Bannerji concludes: As long as ‘multiculturalism’ only skims the surface of society, expressing itself as traditional ethics, such as arranged marriages, and ethnic food, clothes, songs and dances (thus facilitating tourism), it is tolerated by the state and ‘Canadians’ as non-threatening.Canadian literature and Canadian multiculturalism have been commercialized and are employed as advertisers to sell the image of a model nation state and to dynamize Canadian business relations.Milz, drawing on Kogila Moodley, establishes the connection between multiculturalism and global and national capitalism: “global capitalism has increasingly legitimized multicultural politics as a means to create economic progress and identity […] Canadian multiculturalism has become a positive guise for Canadian neoliberal capitalism and English- and French-Canadian cultural hegemony.”22 To sum up the discussion on Canadian multiculturalism, one might say that this policy/ideology has managed to inscribe the immediate reality of a multiethnic society into Canadian public discourse and Canadian consciousness.These writers, in concert with English and French Canadian authors, create the multiracial and multiethnic nature of Canada as an immediate reality for Canadians and write this reality into their minds.20 In the same vein, Judy Young, in defence of Canadian multiculturalism programs, outlines a variety of such programs and their achievements and lists a number of writers, directors, and artists who were promoted through multiculturalism grants.As a result, she affirms that “Canadian literature displays a vibrancy and diversity that derives from a real mixing of sources, influences, and origins.”21 The vibrant and diverse Canadian national literature has become a significant part of world literature and its potential to globally advertise Canada in concert with multiculturalism was recognized and exploited by the Trudeau and Mulroney governments as Sabine Milz notes.New residents also enrich the cultural fabric of Burnaby by introducing new foods, music, traditions, beliefs and interests.des Canadiennes d’origine caribéenne Lillian Allen, Ahdri Zhina Mandiela et Afua Cooper.Various authors contest the myth of Canada being a welcoming tolerant nation in many narratives about Canada’s intolerance.According to them, multiculturalism has not managed to fundamentally upset Canada’s social hierarchies based on class and ethnicity; rather the ‘vertical mosaic’17 stands in stark contrast to the publicized ‘multicultural mosaic.’ There has been a shift from the lowest-paying work having been done by Slavs, Italians, Portuguese, and Greeks to being done by non-European immigrants, a shift that Bannerji describes as creating differentiated second or third class citizenships.18 But the authors also explain that productive results of multiculturalism are the creation of a national discourse about ‘ethnicity’ and ‘race’ that gradually changes Canadians’ self-definition, the increasing academic interest in Canada’s diversity, and the massive expansion of the Canadian literary discourse that includes works from authors of various descents.19 A number of these authors understand this policy/ideology as having “the more positive possibility—if not yet completely realized—of being an innovative model for civic tolerance and the acceptance of diversity,” and they recognize its potential to make room for non-English and non-French authors in the Canadian literary discourse.


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