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Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name. These abbreviated references are called in-text references. They refer to a list of references at the end of the document. Chapter or other part of a book, same author(s) Gawande A.
The same number is used for subsequent in-text references to the same document.
In citation–name, the end references are listed alphabetically by author.
Chapter or other part of a book, different authors Rapley R.
Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology.
For numerous specific examples, see Chapter 29 of the 8th edition of Scientific Style and Format. Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.” Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, De Busk RF, et al. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s) Klarsfeld A, Revah F.
The following examples illustrate the citation–sequence and citation–name systems. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as language of publication other than English; such notes are optional. Organization as author Advanced Life Support Group.
The two systems are identical except for the order of references. Essential notes provide information about location, such as a URL for online works. For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma.
In both systems, numbers within the text refer to the end references.
Consult your publisher to determine which system you will need to follow.
Click on the tabs below for more information and to see some common examples of materials cited in each style, including examples of electronic sources.