In 1568 Emperor Maximilian had invited him to the imperial court at Vienna.
And in 1583 the Duke of Mantua, an amateur musician of talent and frequent correspondent of the composer, invited Palestrina to his court.
In March 1571 Palestrina was appointed choirmaster at the Julian Chapel, where he stayed for the rest of his life.
On at least two occasions attempts were made to lure him from Rome.
Of these three the madrigals played a small role, for his orientation was overwhelmingly on the side of sacred music.
His 250 motets include settings of psalms and canticles, as well as exclusively liturgical items such as 45 hymns, 68 offertories, 13 lamentations, 12 litanies, and 35 Magnificats.
Maria Maggiore in Rome in 1534, the 9-year-old chorister may have followed him, but the earliest cathedral record naming Giovanni carries the date 1537.
Except for a brief return to his birthplace, Giovanni served at S. During this formative period he probably trained with one of the Franco-Flemings in Rome: Robin Mallapert, Firmin Le Bel, or Jacques Arcadelt.
Such bold behavior did not seem to affect adversely his future career, for he became choirmaster at S. Working conditions in this basilica were considerably better than at the Lateran, and Palestrina remained reasonably content for the next 5 years.
In 1566 Palestrina became music director of the newly formed Roman Seminary. Maria Maggiore, he was in part compensated by permission to enroll his sons Rodolfo and Angelo at the institution.