Francisco Franco and the Republicans under Francisco Largo Caballero and, later, Juan Negrín.
The Nationalists were supported by Mussolini’s Italy and Nazi Germany.
The president of the Spanish Republic until nearly the end of the war was Manuel Azaña, an anticlerical liberal.
Internecine conflict compromised the Republican effort from the outset.
The Republican forces had put down the uprising in other areas, except for some of the larger Andalusian cities, including Sevilla (Seville), Granada, and Córdoba.
The Nationalists and Republicans proceeded to organize their respective territories and to repress opposition or suspected opposition.The following day the remnant of the Republican government surrendered; Franco would establish himself as dictator and remain in power until his death on November 20, 1975.The war was an outcome of a polarization of Spanish life and politics that had developed over previous decades.On one side, the Nationalist, were most Roman Catholics, important elements of the military, most landowners, and many businessmen.On the other side, the Republican, were urban workers, most agricultural labourers, and many of the educated middle class.In 1934 there was widespread labour conflict and a bloody uprising by miners in Asturias that was suppressed by troops led by General A well-planned military uprising began on July 17, 1936, in garrison towns throughout Spain.By July 21 the rebels had achieved control in Spanish Morocco, the Canary Islands, and the Balearic Islands (except Minorca) and in the part of Spain north of the Guadarrama mountains and the Ebro River, except for Asturias, Santander, and the Basque provinces along the north coast and the region of Catalonia in the northeast.Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.Join Britannica's Publishing Partner Program and our community of experts to gain a global audience for your work!The Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union as well as from the International Brigades, composed of volunteers from Europe and North America.What began as a failed coup spiraled into a proxy war between Europe’s fascist and communist countries, with the future Allies backing the Republicans and the Axis powers supporting Franco’s Nationalists.