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Distributed Dynamic Clustering Protocol (DDCP) has been proposed to allow all the nodes to take part in the cluster formation scheme and data transmission process.
This protocol consists of a cluster-head selection algorithm, a cluster formation scheme and a routing algorithm for the data transmission between cluster-heads and the base station.
Simulation results show that the EEUCLC mechanism enhanced the energy balance and prolonged the network lifetime compared to other related protocols.
As cities come to be more and more crowded, public safety, efficient transport, preserving energy, lessening expenses, and improving the quality of life are becoming indispensable.
These advances are also helping to monitor smart cities and making our living environments workable.
However, sensor nodes are constrained in energy supply if they have no constant power supply.
Therefore, the smart city term is gaining popularity among scientific researchers.
Chen  defined smart cities as “taking the advantage of communications and sensor capabilities sewn into the cities infrastructures to optimize electrical, transportation, and other logistical operations supporting daily life, thereby improving the quality of life for everyone.”With recent advances in microelectromechanical systems technology and the low price of manufacturing very small low powered sensing devices and deploying them on a large scale, smart cities are becoming technically and economically possible.
All the sensor nodes present in the network takes part in the cluster-head selection process.
Staggered Clustering Protocol (SCP) has been proposed to develop a new energy e_cient clustering protocol for WSN.