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Images of the Sambo, Jim Crow, the Savage, Mammy, Aunt Jemimah, Sapphire, and Jezebelle may not be as powerful today, yet they are still alive.
However, the Sambo was seen as naturally lazy and therefore reliant upon his master for direction.
In this way, the institution of slavery was justified.
This pervasive image of a simple-minded, docile black man dates back at least as far as the colonization of America.
The Sambo stereotype flourished during the reign of slavery in the United States.
It has been argued that "[t]he image of the minstrel clown has been the most persistent and influential image of blacks in American history" (Engle, 1978, p. Words from the folk song "Jim Crow," published by E.
Riley in 1830, further demonstrate the transmission of this stereotype of African-Americans to society: "I'm a full blooded niggar, ob de real ole stock, and wid my head and shoulder I can split a horse block.
It is essential to realize the vast scope of this stereotype.
It was transmitted through music titles and lyrics, folk sayings, literature, children's stories and games, postcards, restaurant names and menus, and thousands of artifacts (Goings, 1994).
As an accommodation to this law, African-Americans developed a shuffling dance in which their feet never left the ground.
The physically impaired man Rice saw dancing in this way became the prototype for early minstrelsy (Engle 1978).